As the analysis processes for the lead mural paintings were finished, and most of the follow artifacts were analyzed using the XRF (X-ray fluorescence), it was time to finalize all follow artifacts.

This time the target of analysis was focused on 5 smaller pieces of mural paintings including 3 pieces found from the mastaba of Seshem-Nefer according to the excavator’s report. These mural paintings were among the last set of mural paintings that was transported from the Egyptian Museum of Cairo to GEM-CC in January 2019.

Seshem-Nefer’s mastaba was excavated by De Morgan in the vicinity of Ini-Sneferu-Ishetef’s mastaba tomb in Dahshur. He was a scribe of the royal documentation in the presence and probably contemporary to Ini-Sneferu-Ishetef (Early 6th Dynasty, Old Kingdom).

The analysis aims to identify the chemical compounds of the pigments and substrate materials of these mural paintings. The experts were eager to find out what pigments were used in the manufacturing process of these paintings and compare them with other paintings to get some insight about the ancient painting techniques as well as to gain the necessary information to be utilized in selecting the best methods for long term preservation of these valuable artifacts.